Intensity or drive

Intensity or drive

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)

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Which element of motivation is a measure of intensity or drive?

1)

_______

A)

effort

B)

direction

C)

achievement

D)

persistence

2)

Maslow’s theory is a hierarchy because ________.

2)

_______

A)

all needs are important

B)

needs are always truly satisfied 

C)

all needs are equal

D)

needs are satisfied sequentially

3)

According to Maslow, a person stranded on a desert island would ________ before he or she worried about making weapons.  

3)

_______

A)

look for other people

B)

establish his or her status on the island

C)

start a family

D)

build a house


4)

Maslow believes that higher-order needs ________.

4)

_______

A)

are satisfied externally

B)

are satisfied most often

C)

are satisfied internally

D)

are satisfied first

5)

________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.

5)

_______

A)

Self-actualization Need Theory

B)

Theory Y

C)

Theory X

D)

Belongingness Need Theory

6)

Workers with a Theory Y point of view would be likely to ________.

6)

_______

A)

love their job more than the money they make

B)

just want to collect a paycheck

C)

avoid work unless rewards were high

D)

avoid responsibility for their actions

7)

According to Herzberg, which kind of characteristics are most closely associated with job dissatisfaction?

7)

_______

A)

lack of advancement

B)

extrinsic things that come from the outside

C)

the goals of the job

D)

intrinsic things that come from within themselves

8)

According to Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory, ________ are associated with job satisfaction.

8)

_______

A)

hygiene factors

B)

punishments

C)

rewards

D)

motivators

9)

Which three needs are recognized in McClelland’s three-needs theory?

9)

_______

A)

power, comfort, stimulation

B)

achievement, power, affiliation

C)

security, self-interest, affiliation

D)

achievement, power, security

10)

Which of the following suggests that humans have an innate desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships?

10)

______

A)

need for fulfillment

B)

need for achievement

C)

need for power

D)

need for affiliation

11)

Which is the best summary of goal-setting theory?

11)

______

A)

Easy goals make for happier employees.

B)

Specific goals increase performance.

C)

Always make your goals a bit higher than you can reach.

D)

Goals make no difference in performance.

12)

The job characteristics model (JCM) maintains that ________ is critical to motivating workers.

12)

______

A)

how workers are treated

B)

setting goals

C)

equal treatment for all

D)

how jobs are designed

13)

The JCM contends that these dimensions are required for a high level of motivation among workers. Meaningful work refers to works require various skills, clear task identity and significant jobs.

13)

______

A)

autonomy, feedback, good management

B)

meaningful work, autonomy, independence

C)

meaningful work, autonomy, feedback

D)

high pay, autonomy, feedback

14)

A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outputs from a job to the ratio of relevant others is known as ________.

14)

______

A)

equity theory

B)

action motivation

C)

reinforcement theory

D)

goal setting

15)

Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned with ________.

15)

______

A)

comparing their rewards to those of others

B)

making enough money to live on

C)

employers sharing profits

D)

justice for all people who work

16)

In equity theory, a worker’s “self” category compares a person’s outcomes-to-input ratio with ________.

16)

______

A)

the lowest paid worker

B)

the person’s own standards and expectations

C)

the standards and expectations of other workers

D)

the highest paid worker

17)

In equity theory, an underrewarded individual ________ the work he or she does.

17)

______

A)

is paid too much for

B)

is paid fairly for

C)

does not complain about

D)

is paid too little for

18)

In equity theory, procedural justice is concerned with which of the following?

18)

______

A)

comparing fairness between different organizations

B)

comparing output-to-input ratios among individuals

C)

determining how honest one’s boss is

D)

determining how fair the system is 

19)

In expectancy theory, a person may have the ability to reach a certain goal but lack motivation because ________.

19)

______

A)

the goal is too hard

B)

the person’s desire to reach the goal is too strong

C)

the goal is too easy

D)

the person has no strong desire to reach the goal

20)

The key to expectancy theory is that an individual’s goals ________.

20)

______

A)

are not too high and not too low

B)

match the rewards provided by the organization

C)

match the goals of fellow workers and superiors

D)

are not too high

21)

 If salespeople in John’s company meet their sales goals for the month, they are given an all-expense-paid trip to a Denver Broncos football game. Football is not one of John’s favorite sports, and the Denver Broncos are definitely not John’s favorite team. John’s performance might be influenced by the ________ part of Vroom’s expectancy theory.

21)

______

A)

effort-reward linkage

B)

effort-performance linkage

C)

attractiveness

D)

performance-reward linkage

22)

Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory align well with American workers because American culture places a strong emphasis on ________.

22)

______

A)

collectivism and achievement

B)

low power distance and high uncertainty avoidance

C)

individualism and high power distance

D)

achievement and individualism

23)

 ________ allow companies to accommodate the needs of workers with nonstandard family situations.

23)

______

A)

Flexible pay rates

B)

Expanded workweeks and job sharing

C)

Flextime, compressed workweeks, and job sharing

D)

Flextime and expanded workweeks

24)

Which of the following is NOT a common way that employee recognition programs recognize worker achievements?

24)

______

A)

a party

B)

added worker responsibilities

C)

a handwritten note of thanks

D)

a public announcement of achievement

Acme Corporation (Scenario)

Acme Corporation’s management feels that employees could be more motivated by their jobs. The jobs were enriched earlier and some improvements were seen in motivation.

25)

To increase the motivation through enrichment, Acme decides to increase the meaningfulness of the work. This might be done by ________.

25)

______

A)

giving workers more feedback

B)

increasing autonomy of workers

C)

increasing skill variety

D)

giving workers less feedback

26)

Acme managers explained how important their product was to the world economy. Which core dimension in the job characteristics model is this?

26)

______

A)

skill variety

B)

task identity

C)

autonomy

D)

task significance

27)

The Acme managers developed a program that allows the employees to have a large degree of freedom carrying out their jobs. Which core dimension are they providing?

27)

______

A)

task identity

B)

autonomy

C)

task significance

D)

skill variety

Application of Early Theories of Motivation (Scenario)

Three managers work at the Pabco Company. Aaron really “cracks the whip” on his employees and firmly believes in strict controls and punishment for those employees who do not perform to company expectations.

Zach has very few controls and believes that as long as people know what their objectives are, they will exercise self-control and self-direction.

Susan has been trying to improve working conditions and manager-employee relations to increase the level of productivity in her department.

28)

Zach is what type of manager?

28)

______

A)

autocratic

B)

dictatorial

C)

Theory X-oriented

D)

Theory Y-oriented

29)

Susan was trying to use what type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity?

29)

______

A)

social

B)

esteem

C)

hygiene

D)

motivators

30)

Zach was using which type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity levels?

30)

______

A)

motivators

B)

esteem

C)

social

D)

hygiene

Essay questions:

Please read the case application “Bringing the real world to life — Google searching for? and answer the following questions:

a.       Google is doing a lot for its employees, but obviously not enough to retain several of its talented employees. Using what you’ve learned from studying the various motivation theories, what does this situation tell you about employee motivation?

Solution:

b.       What do you think is Google’s biggest challenge in keeping employees motivated?

Solution:

Talented and educated employees of Google helps in meeting its extraordinary opportunities.

c.        If you were managing a team of Google employees, how would you keep them motivated?

Solution:

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